What differentiates a process-focussed approach from a product-centred one is that the outcome of the writing, the product, is not preconceived. Students could be discussing qualities needed to do a certain job, or giving reasons as to why people take drugs or gamble.
Individually, they use the skills, structures and vocabulary they have been taught to produce the product; to show what they can do as fluent and competent users of the language. Students choose from a choice of comparable writing tasks. A process approach Process approaches to writing tend to focus more on the varied classroom activities which promote the development of language use: Stage 1 Model texts are read, and then features of the genre are highlighted.
A final draft is written. If studying a story, the focus may be on the techniques used to make the story interesting, and students focus on where and how the writer employs these techniques.
Such an approach can have any number of stages, though a typical sequence of activities could proceed as follows; Stage 1 Generating ideas by brainstorming and discussion.
The aim is to achieve the best product possible. Process writing text as a resource for comparison ideas as starting point more global, focus on purpose, theme, text type, i. Stage 4 Students write the first draft.
A summary of the differences Process-driven approaches show some similarities with task-based learning, in that students are given considerable freedom within the task.
However, process approaches do not repudiate all interest in the product, i. They are not curbed by pre-emptive teaching of lexical or grammatical items. This stage is very important. Stage 6 Drafts are returned and improvements are made based upon peer feedback. This is done in class and frequently in pairs or groups.
This stage helps to make the hierarchical relationship of ideas more immediately obvious, which helps students with the structure of their texts. Stage 3 Students organise ideas into a mind map, spidergram, or linear form. Stage 4 The end result of the learning process.
Stage 3 Organisation of ideas. The teacher remains in the background during this phase, only providing language support if required, so as not to inhibit students in the production of ideas.
Stage 2 This consists of controlled practice of the highlighted features, usually in isolation. By responding as readers, students develop an awareness of the fact that a writer is producing something to be read by someone else, and thus can improve their own drafts.
A product approach This is a traditional approach, in which students are encouraged to mimic a model text, which is usually presented and analysed at an early stage. A model for such an approach is outlined below: Students extend ideas into note form, and judge quality and usefulness of ideas.
Those who favour this approach believe that the organisation of ideas is more important than the ideas themselves and as important as the control of language.Process approaches to writing tend to focus more on the varied classroom activities which promote the development of language use: brainstorming, group discussion, re-writing.
Such an approach can have any number of stages, though a typical sequence of activities could proceed as follows. UNDERSTANDING MIXED METHODS RESEARCH W ork on this book began almost a decade ago when we started writing about mixed methods research at the time that quali- We present a visual model of the logic of our process approach in Figure As shown in Figurewe divide the phases in the process into individ.
From Principles to Practice Appendix 1 illustrates how the principles identified above can be applied in the process of developing an ESP/EAP writing course. “the goal of education. Written Business Communication: A course for Accountants. However, in spite of the implications of process research, it has been found that it has had minimal impact on the teaching of writing since, in spite of research evidence (Ammon, ; Urzua.
on early bilingual writing development in classroom settings. In the case of English language learners, most writing research has looked at one language or the other, but not mint-body.com main research focus has been on the development of English writing (Ammon, ; Halsall, ; Hudelson,; Peyton, ; Seda and Abramson, ;.
contradictory, thus, a process-genre approach (PGA) was then developed by some experts (see Badger & White, ; Yan, ; Lee, et al. ). Practically, PGA incorporates the four teaching steps of genre-based approach, in which process-based writing occurs in the latter two steps as explained in the following.